Public Health

Articles, books, statistics, how to cite references, and more information about the multidisciplinary field of public health.

Citing Data and Other Things

See this page of our Citing Sources guide to read about citing data, interviews, tweets, web pages, videos, and other things.

Publication Manual of the APA (American Psychological Association)
BF76.7.P83 2010

This is a blue book on C-level, on the first (tall) shelf in Science Reference. There is also a copy on M-level, in the Reference Office; just ask the librarian for it, and give them your name

  • Page 179 - personal communications, including interviews, letters, e-mails, phone conversations, and more:

    "Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials...and surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible."

    My opinion is that their examples don't give enough information, and I think that MLA's style is a little better (see below).
  • Chapter 7, page 193 - everything else, including blog posts and comments, messages on message boards, videos, maps, musical recordings, software, and more. Just page through the list until you see what you want.
  • Data Sets, Software, Measurement Instruments, and Apparatus, page 210. More about citing data sets from the APA blog (as of December 2013)
  • Twitter, Facebook, Google+ -- On the APA style blog (as of October 2013)
  • YouTube -- On the APA style blog (as of October 2011)
  • More info from APA's style blog -- This is a list of most of the things mentioned above (although I don't see a date) 

MLA (Modern Language Association) Handbook for Writers of Research Papers
M-level Reserves, and A Level General Reference, LB2369 .G53 2009

  • Interviews, pages 201-202 -- "...[G]ive the name of the person interviewed, the kind of interview (Personal interview, Telephone interview), and the date." I'm assuming that, unlike APA, you *should* put these in your reference lists.

    Pei, I.M. Personal interview. 22 July 1993.
  • E-mails, pages 204-205
  • Chapter 5, pages 123+, lists the other print and electronic things you may have to cite.
  • Twitter and YouTube, from Purdue's excellent writing guide