Historical Primary Sources

Information on primary sources--what they are, how to find them, and how to use and cite them.

An individual source may exist in multiple formats. For example, an original may exist in an archive, a facsimile or reprint may be available in the library, and the original may have been digitized and be available online. 

Primary Sources at Johns Hopkins

There are may types of primary sources which can be found in various formats. Click on any of the source types or formats below to learn more about each.


click for archives and manuscripts click for books and pamphlets click for periodicals click for maps
click for material objects click for visual materials click for oral histories click for music and sound
click for film click for data click for ephemera  


» For information on citing primary sources, visit the citation tips page.