Citing Sources

Learn about frequently-used citation styles and citation tools.

More Styles

The most recent ACS style guide is the 3rd edition (2006).

The latest edition (10th ed., 2007) of the AMA Manual of Style is available online and in print, including on C-level in Science Reference.

The Council of Science Editors has its own writing and publication style.

The IEEE's current style (updated November 2018) is this PDF.

The IEEE Mathematics Guide (updated November 2018) shows how mathematical equations should be written.

The IEEE Reference Guide (updated November 2018) shows how to cite various types of references in IEEE style. These include:

  • books
  • government documents
  • conference proceedings
  • datasets
  • handbooks
  • lectures
  • videos
  • other things

More information about IEEE style can be found here.

The style known as "Vancouver" was created by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It is used by many biomedical journals including Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).

Here are the organization's guidelines for preparing a manuscript for submission.
In the References section of that page, there is a lot of guidance, including

Some journals use variations on Vancouver style. For style points that vary -- e.g., whether to cite electronic references within parentheses in the text or in numbered references following the text -- you should consult the specific journal to which you plan to submit your manuscript.


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