Citing Sources

Learn about frequently-used citation styles and citation tools.

Citing Other Things

How do you cite an interview, a tweet, or a public web page?

The print and online versions of the styles listed on the blue pages on the left of this guide will give examples of how to cite things that are not books or journal articles.

Here are some tips:

APA Style
  • Choose "Sample References" (top of the page, as shown below)
  • These pages list things alphabetically. As shown below, the last page of the list has examples of kinds of web pages, They don't include government web pages, but choose the closest example shown, and then add the missing pieces

  • APA style:  Smith, I. (1988.) U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
  • Patents in Chicago style

Remember that no citation tool is perfect -- you should always check your reference list to make sure that every citation has every piece that it needs, including things specific to online sources such as date accessed and URL -- to be complete and correct.

Items from NCBI/PubMed (excluding articles):