Citing Sources

Learn about frequently-used citation styles and citation tools.

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APA Style Resources

APA Style and Grammar Guidelines (scroll down for "in-text citations" and "references")

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This is what APA 7th edition looks like in RefWorks:
 

Basics of 7th Edition APA Style
  • This is a tutorial about basic information for the 7th edition of APA style
  • Detailed information about how to cite and how to do other things is on the next tab ("APA -- Academic Writer")
APA Academic Writer has examples of how to cite.
  • Choose LEARN (at the top of the page), then "Go to Sample References":

Those Sample References include journal articles, news articles, and many other kinds of information. For example, here are several kinds of journal articles, and an example of how to cite one of them (an article that has a DOI):
 

Here is how to cite an online newspaper:

However, this tool does NOT include some other things, such as government websites or news websites.

Government sites: All government web sites DO have an author. If no person is listed, then the author is a "group author," meaning that the agency or agency department itself is the author. Examples:

-- National Cancer Institute (2018). Facing forward: Life after cancer treatment (NIH Publication No. 18-2424). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National institutes of Health. https://www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/life-after-cancer-treament.pdf

-- Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity. (2020). Adult Obesity Facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/obesity/data/adult.html

-- Canada Council for the Arts. (2013) What we heard: Summary of key findings: 2013 Canada Council's Inter-Arts Office consultation.           http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2017/canadacouncil/K23-65-2013-eng.pdf
[Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition, p.329]

News web site: Use this format for something published by an online news source (not a newspaper), such as BBC or CNN.
--- Bologna, C. (2018, June 27) What happens to your mind and body when you feel homesick? HuffPost. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/what-happens-mind-body-homesick_n_5b201ebde4b09d7a3d77eee1
In-text parenthetical citations: (Bologna, 2018)
In-text narrative citations: Bologna (2018) (for example, "According to Bologna (2018),...")
[Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition, p.351]

Patents: Theobald, Daniel. (2016). Vehicle operating method and system (U.S. Patent No.9,471,062. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO2&Sect2=HITOFF&p=1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsearch-bool.html&r=4&f=G&l=50&co1=AND&d=PTXT&s1=%22robots+healthcare%22&OS=%22robots+healthcare%22&RS=%22robots+healthcare%22
[Publication Manual of the APA, 7th edition, p.366]

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More help with web pages


No citation tool is perfect! Always check your reference list to make sure that every citation has every piece that it needs to be complete and correct.

Purdue University's OWL (Online Writing Lab) site has a lot of information about writing about specific subjects or for specific purposes, and about the various kinds of writing styles.

Under Research and Citation are guides to:

The APA and MLA pages both have links to "Formatting and Style Guide," which is where you will find specific examples of citing articles, books, government documents, and other kinds of publications. (These are their APA pages for in-text citations basics, and in-text citations author/authors.)

Note: Citations for sources that you read off of a screen are different from those that you read off of a printed page. Please ask your librarian for citation help whenever you need it. It's very important that your citations are all correct and complete.