Citing Sources

Learn about frequently-used citation styles and citation tools.

More Styles

Here are ACM templates for references and for in-text citations (as of January 2020).

  • This page also has a link to BibTex example
  • In RefWorks, every ACM journal and conference proceeding us listed. Click "Create bibliography" (on top), and enter ACM in the box, then scroll down to the publication whose style you want to use:


Here is information about submitting manuscripts in Word and LaTeX.

The most recent ACS style guide is the 3rd edition (2006).

The latest edition is the 11th (2019).

"In reference citations, a DOI is preferable to a URL if one is available... No accessed date is required for the DOI because it is a permanent identifier; it is presented as the last item in the reference."

(The 10th edition, from 2007, is also available.)


The Council of Science Editors has its own writing and publication style.

The style known as "Vancouver" was created by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). It is used by many biomedical journals including Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal (BMJ), JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association), and New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM).

Here are the organization's guidelines for preparing a manuscript for submission.
In the References section of that page, there is a lot of guidance, including

Some journals use variations on Vancouver style. For style points that vary -- e.g., whether to cite electronic references within parentheses in the text or in numbered references following the text -- you should consult the specific journal to which you plan to submit your manuscript.


IEEE Reference Guide (November 2018) -- How to cite various kinds of information sources in IEEE style, including:

  • books
  • government documents
  • conference proceedings
  • datasets
  • handbooks
  • lectures
  • videos

IEEE Editorial Style Manual for Authors (January 2019) -- Use if you are writing something to submit to an IEEE journal.

IEEE Mathematics Guide (November 2018) shows how mathematical equations should be written.

Purdue OWL Guide to IEEE Style