Medicine, Nursing, and Other Health Fields

Articles and information about medicine, nursing, pharmacology, and other health fields, as well as JH medical libraries and institutions.

Librarian

Sue Vazakas's picture
Sue Vazakas
Contact:
Eisenhower Library, C Level, Office #C30
410-516-4153

Who Else Can Help Me?

These librarians can also help you:

  • Steve Stich -- Chemistry and Chemical Engineering librarian (C-level)

At Welch:

Getting Started - Basic Information about Drugs and Pharmacology

Dictionary of Cancer Terms -- From the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Dictionary of Drugs -- Click on the chemNETbase link, then scroll down to "Dictionary of Drugs"

  • Covers all currently marketed drugs with their chemical data and diagrams; pharmacological tools; and compounds in later stages of clinical trials

Dictionary of Genetic Terms -- From the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Medicine (2013, 3rd ed.)

  • Definitions of ~1,000 common abbreviations, and all the words in the field such as "bioactive compounds" and "contamination," as well as the R&D of new therapies, "conducting clinical trials, marketing authorizations for new medicinal products, and safety aspects..."

Drug Dictionary -- "...technical definitions and synonyms for drugs/agents used to treat patients with cancer or conditions related to cancer. Each drug entry includes links to check for clinical trials listed in NCI's List of Cancer Clinical Trials."

Drugs@FDA -- Look up drugs by name or active ingredient; here is help with using the site

MedlinePlus.gov

MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) -- PubMed's MeSH database has definitions for everything

Physicians' Desk Reference -- Drugs can be searched by brand name, scientific name, manufacturer, or drug category. Includes all information about prescription drugs, including a key to controlled substances, use-in-pregnancy ratings, contraindications, dosages, adverse reactions, and pediatric use.
    Use the PDR for prescription drugs (2013), or the PDR for Non-prescription Drugs (2014).

Taber's Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary (2013) -- Online

U.S. Pharmacopeia -- The link will take you to the password. Note: Only one user at a time.


What's a Pharmacopeia?

  • Pharmacopoeia (definition from MeSH) -- "Authoritative treatise on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc."
  • Pharmacopoeias are much *more* complete than formularies

What's a Formulary?

  • Formulary (definition from MeSH) -- "[L]ists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations."
  • "In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy."
  • Formularies are much *less* complete than pharmacopeias -- they don't have full descriptions of drugs, their formulations, chemical properties, etc.

Online medical textbooks:

There is a lot of overlap, so don't stress about which one to choose -- start with AccessMedicine, which includes several excellent pharma texts.

References -- Here are handbooks and encyclopedias (2012+) with the word "drugs" in the TITLE.

Journal articles and studies about drugs and their effects are found in databases.

The list below has other article databases that are best for health-related topics.

For more databases, including specialized information, look at this list.

Drug Information (from  Medlineplus.gov) -- Information about thousands of prescription and over-the-counter drugs, herbs, and supplements, collected from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP).

Drug Therapy (from MedlinePlus.gov) -- Explanations of topics such as antidepressants, blood thinners, chemotherapy, over-the-counter medicines, pain relievers, diabetes medicines, medication errors, and more.

National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) -- This site's mission is to give information about "the usefulness and safety of complementary and integrative interventions and to provide the public with research-based information to guide health-care decision making." The NCCIH is part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH; in 2014, NCCIH's name was changed from National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine). 

 

Google Scholar -- Important Tips

1)   If the article title does not lead you to full text, click on "FIND IT"

2)   If you don't see "Find IT" next to the citation, click on "More," which is *below* the citation. It will turn into "FIND IT."
 

3)   In the list of results, you might see listings in Google BOOKS. However, copyright law prevents them from showing you the whole book. Search the library catalog for the book you want -- if we have it, you can see 100% of it.

It is crucial to cite your sources *completely* and *correctly*.

Articles, conference papers, etc. -- Your citation manager (e.g., Refworks, EndNote, Mendeley, EasyBib, Zotero) will put it into whatever style your professor requires
 

Databases -- Here are AMA's rules for citing databases, such as PDR.net. For a specific entry, such as for temozolomide, use the URL for that specific page. For example:
 

  • PDR.net [database online]. Whippany, NJ: PDR; n.d. http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/Temodar-temozolomide-393#15. Accessed April 26, 2017.

Websites -- Here are AMA's rules for citing websites, such as pages on the CDC's website.

Datasets - Here's MIT's quick guidelines for citing data (some datasets will list their own suggestion for citing; when they do, use that)

MeSH definitions -- None of the styles will have a specific citation style for MeSH definitions, but as with all things you have to cite, choose something that's close. MeSH is sort of like an online encyclopedia or dictionary, so use that as your model. APA's example for this is:

  • Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism
     
  • So your MeSH heading citation would be: 

    Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. (n.d.). In PubMed, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/68000277.
When in doubt, err on the side of including as much information as you can, so that other researchers, professors, and employers can find your sources.
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Specialized Resources (by topic)

AccessMedicine -- A database of online medical textbooks.

  • To narrow down your results, choose NARROW BY TOPIC on the right

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)

  • Toxicological profiles include health effects, routes of exposure, chemical and physical properties, mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, interaction profiles, regulations, and more

Drugs@FDA -- This site is for FDA-approved drugs. Here is the FAQ.

  • Search by drug name, active ingredient, or application number
  • OR, search the entire FDA site for what you want; e.g., bevacizumab dosing
  • Narrow your results using the limits on the left


Environmental Health & Toxicology -- This is NIH's site for toxicology and environmental health. It includes many databases, including

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Safer Chemicals Research -- This group supplies information about real-world exposures so that they can be more fully examined, evaluates the potential environmental and health impacts of new materials and chemicals, and publishes material to educate the public.

Gene Ontology Project (GO) --  This is a framework for describing gene products in a consistent manner, no matter the species. These cover

  • "Cellular Component -- "the parts of a cell or its extracellular environment"
  • Molecular Function -- the elemental activities of a gene product at the molecular level, such as binding or catalysis
  • Biological Process -- operations or sets of molecular events with a defined beginning and end, pertinent to the functioning of integrated living units: cells, tissues, organs, and organisms"

MedlinePlus.gov -- General background written for laypeople.

MedWatch (FDA Safety Info and AE Reporting System) -- This site also has medication guides to many drugs, which include adverse effects.

MicroMedex Healthcare Series  -- This database has tons of drug information. When it's not clear what to do, click HELP (upper right corner) and it will give you help for the section you're in. This quick reference sheet is also helpful, as is the "Drug Comparison" section -- add at least two drugs, and all characteristics of each one will be shown, including adverse effects.

 

SIDER (Side Effect Resource) -- The collected *public* information about *marketed* medicines. You can search by drug name, ATC code, or side effect.

 

 

ArrayExpress -- From European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI). The database contains "data from high-throughput functional genomics experiments." Here's the record for bevacizumab.

Chemical Effects in Biological Systems (CEBS) --  This is a public database (from the National Institute of Environmental and Health Sciences [NIEHS]. Its toxicogenomics data include "clinical chemistry and histopathology findings, and microarray and proteomics data." It allows you to query the data, and then go to the microarray module to do analyses on gene signatures and pathways.

Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD) -- CTD has information about "relationships between chemicals, genes, and human diseases," with its main focus on the effects of environmental chemicals on human health. Here's the FAQ.

Connectivity Map (MIT) -- This work "links gene patterns associated with disease to corresponding patterns produced by drug candidates... It allows researchers to screen compounds against genomewide disease signatures... 

  • Requires free registration
  • As soon as you register, you'll see a tutorial, because you need a gene expression signature to use the map

dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes [NCBI]) -- As of 2013, this database included "results of studies that have investigated the interaction of genotype and phenotype," incuding

  • genome-wide association studies
  • medical sequencing
  • molecular diagnostic assays
  • association between genotype and non-clinical traits

Types of data distributed through dbGaP include

  • phenotype data
  • association (GWAS) data
  • summary level analysis data
  • SRA (Short Read Archive) data
  • reference alignment (BAM) data
  • VCF (Variant Call Format) data
  • expression data
  • imputed genotype data,
  • image data

Genes Expression Omnibus (GEO) -- Contains "microarray, next-generation sequencing, and other forms of high-throughput functional genomics data submitted by the research community."

Human Reference Interactome Mapping Project (HuRI) -- This project's goal is to develop a "reference map of the human protein-protein interactome network." An "interactome" is "the complete collection of all physical protein–protein interactions that can take place within a cell." [M. Cusick et al., Interactome: gateway into systems biology. Hum Mol Genet 2005, 14 (suppl_2): R171-R181]. Here is detailed information about this project.

International HapMap Project -- "haplotype map of the human genome, the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human DNA sequence variation." This project was ended in June 2016.

KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) -- A source for "understanding high-level functions and utilities of the biological system, such as the cell, the organism and the ecosystem, from genomic and molecular-level information." It also includes information about drugs and diseases, as well as these other search networks:

  • DBGET -- This is a "retrieval system for major biological databases," including PubMed
  • GenomeNet -- This is a "Japanese network of database and computational services for genome research and related research areas in biomedical sciences, operated by the Kyoto University Bioinformatics Center."
  • varDB and ClinVar

OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) -- A "catalog of human genes and genetic conditions." Here's a tutorial (5.5 minutes).

Pharmacogenomics KnowledgeBase (PharmaGKB) -- Information about the "impact of human variation on drug responses."

Reactome -- This database shows physiological pathways for humans and other creatures, such as those for signal transduction, cell-to-cell communication, metabolism of proteins, and the immune system. It offers "bioinformatics tools for the visualization, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge to support basic research, genome analysis, modeling, systems biology and education."

The Welch Library site about bioinformatics resources includes portals to bioinformatics tools, databases, software, and topics -- look at tabs across the top, which include pharmacogenomics/pharmacology.

MedCalc 3000 (in StatRef!) [mouse over "Tools and Features" on the left, and click MedCalc 3000]

  • converters (e.g., energy unit, force unit, flow unit, opioid dose converters)
  • equations (e.g., BMI, digitalis body load, IV drip maintenance rate calculator, oxygen content of arterial and venous blood)
  • clinical criteria (e.g., bleeding risk on Warfarin therapy, lots of indexes for probability, risk, and severity)

MicroMedex Healthcare Series  -- This database has tons of drug information. Here are the calculators it provides. 

Current Protocols includes calculators and tools, such as

  • buffer calculator
  • common laboratory recipes calculator
  • G-force/RPM conversion tool
  • polyacrylamide recipes calculator
  • AccessMedicine --> Videos --> Pharmacology
  • There are 10 videos about the cardiovascular system, and 4 about neurologic aspects
  • The videos show mechanisms of action and other effects of drugs

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)

  • Toxicological profiles include health effects, routes of exposure, chemical and physical properties, mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, interaction profiles, regulations, and more

Drugs@FDA -- This site is for FDA-approved drugs. Here is the FAQ.

  • Search by drug name, active ingredient, or application number
  • OR, search the entire FDA site for what you want; e.g., bevacizumab dosing
  • Narrow your results using the limits on the left

Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics [online] (2011; 12 ed.) -- How drugs actually work in the body, including how and why drugs affect different body systems, chemical properties of drugs, drug interactions, and toxic effects.

Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB) -- This is one of the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET collection of databases. HSDB contains peer-reviewed data for 5,000+ chemicals, including information about

  • human health effects
  • animal toxicity studies
  • metabolism pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacology
  • environmental fate/exposure
  • standards & regulations
  • chem/physical properties
  • manufacturing information

Henry Stewart Talks: Biomedical and Life Sciences Collection

  • Videos about biomedical topics, including Pharmaceutical Sciences -- you can choose your subtopic and arrange by date, such as these talks about bioavailability 

MicroMedex Healthcare Series  -- The mechanisms of action are in many places. You can type in the drug name plus the word "mechanism, or use "help," or use the "Drug Comparison" section -- add at least two drugs, and all characteristics of each one will be shown, including adverse effects.

Here's another place to find mechanisms of action, in a drug record:

 

 

PubChem -- This database is linked with PubMed and other NCBI databases, such as the protein 3D structure database.

  • You can search it by descriptive terms, chemical properties, or structural similarity
  • PubChem contains information from pharmaceutical companies themselves -- from a structure, you can link out to PubMed for articles about researchers who are working on them

PubMed Supplementary Concepts -- MeSH headings in PubMed include "supplementary concepts," which are substance names that are NOT included as main MeSH headings.

  • For example, putting the word "hydrochloric" into MeSH retrieves 15+ headings
  • The first 12 are main headings, but the last few are things like "aqua regia" and "Super Etch," which are just names in the literature but not *main* MeSH headings

Reaxys -- Chemical compounds, reactions, properties, substance data, and patents. (Reaxys replaces Beilstein and Gmelin.)

  • To find bioactivity, choose "Substances" and enter a chemical name, then "Search Substances" (bottom right)
  • You'll get the number of substances that includes that chemical name, and on the left, lots of ways to filter your search
  • Choose Bioactivity --> Pharmacological Data --> LIMIT TO
  • Includes link to full-text articles

SciFinder Scholar -- You must register to use SciFinder (Chemical Abstracts online), which covers ~52 million compounds in  "journals, patents, conference proceedings, dissertations, technical reports, books, and more."

SpringerMaterials -- Chemical and physical properties of  materials and of chemical systems.

  • Search by element or by structure
  • "Data sources currently include the Landolt-Börnstein New Series, the Linus Pauling Files, and specialized databases on thermophysical properties, polymer thermodynamics, adsorption isotherms, and 32,000+ substance profiles"

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) -- News and information about drug labeling, drug approvals, and much more.

  • The "Orange Book" is a list of approved generic drugs; the page is searchable by active ingredient and has an FAQ

This page about tools in molecular biology includes info about

 


Hazardous Substances Databank (HSDB) -- This is one of the National Library of Medicine's TOXNET collection of databases. HSDB contains peer-reviewed data for 5,000+ chemicals, including information about

  • human health effects
  • animal toxicity studies
  • metabolism pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacology
  • environmental fate/exposure
  • standards & regulations
  • chem/physical properties
  • manufacturing information


 

MicroMedex Healthcare Series  -- PK's can be found in the individual drug records. You can type in the drug name plus the word "pharmacokinetics," or use "help." An example is below. For PD, the easiest approach is to type in the drug name plus the word "pharmacodynamics." The first image is where HELP is, and the second is where PK is.

 

ATSDR (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry)

  • This CDC site has toxicological profiles include health effects, routes of exposure, chemical and physical properties, mechanisms of action, toxicokinetics, interaction profiles, regulations, and more


Environmental Health & Toxicology -- This is NIH's site for toxicology and environmental health. It includes many databases, including

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Safer Chemicals Research -- This group supplies information about real-world exposures so that they can be more fully examined, evaluates the potential environmental and health impacts of new materials and chemicals, and publishes material to educate the public.

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For any other chemical information, please also check our guide for Chemistry, specifically the resources listed under Chemical Properties.

 

Cochrane Library -- Reviews of various treatments and therapies for medical conditions, and conclusions about the comparative effectiveness

Drug Facts and Comparisons (2015; MSEL Science Reference) -- Chapters are arranged by therapeutic use; e.g., antineoplastic, cardiovascular

PubMed and EMBASE -- For articles
 

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Business, News, & More

Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Medicine (2013) -- Online. This edition...focus[es] on the research and development of new therapies as well as on conducting clinical trials, marketing authorizations for new medicinal products, and safety aspects including pharmacovigilance. ...[T]his new book explains roughly 1,000 abbreviations most commonly used in pharmaceutical medicine. This volume will be a valuable tool for professionals working in the pharmaceutical industry, medical and pre-clinical research, regulatory affairs, marketing and marketing authorization of pharmaceuticals."

DrugBank [online] -- Contains information about drugs and their targets. For example, here is the record for bevacizumab. It also includes pricing information.

EIU (Economics Intelligence Unit) -- Business and industry throughout the world. You can search in two ways:

Markets and Reimbursements

PubChem -- This database is linked with PubMed and other NCBI databases, such as the protein 3D structure database.

  • You can search it by descriptive terms, chemical properties, or structural similarity
  • PubChem contains information from pharmaceutical companies themselves -- from a structure, you can link out to PubMed for articles about researchers who are working on them

Business Source Complete -- This database includes many publications about the pharmaceutical industry, like a lot of these 300+ titles listed in our catalog

Journals and magazines NOT in Business Source Complete -- These periodicals about the pharmaceutical industry can be found in:

  • LexisNexis Academic -- search by keyword or publication (use SUBJECT -- on the left -- to narrow your results)
  • ProQuest Central -- search by keyword or publication

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) -- News and information about drug labeling, drug approvals, and much more.

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